Progress on diabetic cerebrovascular diseases
Diabetic cerebrovascular diseases are defined as cerebral vascular diseases induced by diabetes with sugar, fat and a series of nutrient substance metabolic disorders, resulting in intracranial large and small vessel diseases. About 20%-40% patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from cerebral blood vessel diseases. Diabetic cerebrovascular diseases are the main causes of death in patients with diabetes mellitus. The major clinical manifestations are asymptomatic cerebral atherosclerosis, stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and acute cerebral vascular disease. The pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of diabetic cerebrovascular disease are obviously different from non-diabetic cerebral vascular diseases. This paper will focus on the diabetic cerebrovascular disease, including its latest research progress. Diabetic cerebral large vascular disease and diabetic cerebral small vessel disease will be reviewed here.
Ross R. Atherosclerosis-an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(2):115-26.
Portik-Dobos V, Anstadt MP, Hutchinson J, Bannan M, Ergul A. Evidence for a matrix metalloproteinase induction/activation system in arterial vasculature and decreased synthesis and activity in diabetes. Diabetes 2001; 51(10):3063-3068.
Soejima H, Ogawa H, Morimoto T, Nakayama M, Okada S, Sakuma M, et al. Aspirin possibly reduces cerebrovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients with higher C-reactive protein level: Subanalysis from the JPAD Trial. Journal of Cardiology 2013; 62(3):165-170.
Zhu WG, Li S, Lin LQ, Yan H, Fu T, Zhu JH. Vascular oxidative stress increases dendritic, cell adhesion and transmigration induced by homocysteine. Cell Immunol. 2009; 254(2):110-116.
Postea O, Krotz F, Henger A, Keller C, Weiss N. Stereospecific and redox-sensitive increase in monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by homocysteine. 2006. Arterioscler Thromb Vase Biol 2006; 26(3):508-513.
Loftus IM, Naylor AR, Goodall S, Crowther M, Jones L, Bell PR, et al. Increased matrix metallo-proteinase-9 activity in unstable carotid plaques.A potential role in acute plaque disruption. Stroke 2000; 31(1):40-47.
Sakai H, Shichiri M, Hirata Y. Hyperuricemia in diabetes mellitus. Nippon Rinsho 2003; 61:390-392.
McCormick M, Hadley D, McLean JR, Macfarlane JA, Condon B, Muir KW. Randomized controlled trial of insulin for acute poststroke hyperglycemia. Ann Neurol. 2010; 67(5):570-578.
Hu G, Sarti C, Jousilahti P, Peltonen M, Qiao Q, Antikainen R, et al. The impact of history of hypertension and type 2 diabetes at baseline on the incidence of stroke and stroke mortality. Stroke 2005; 36(12):2538-2543.
Adams HP Jr, Bendixen BH, Kappelle LJ, Biller J, Love BB, Gordon DL, et al. Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. Stroke 1993; 24(1):35-41.
Bruno A, Biller J, Adams HP Jr, Clarke WR, Woolson RF, Williams LS, et al. Acute blood glucose level and outcome from ischemic stroke. Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) Investigators. Neurology 1999; 52(2):280-284.
Icks A, Claessen H, Morbach S, Glaeske G, Hoffmann F. Time-dependent impact of diabetes on mortality in patients with stroke: survival up to 5 years in a health insurance population cohort in Germany. Diabetes Care 2012; 35(9):1868-1875.
Ergul A, Kelly-Cobbs A, Abdalla M, Fagan SC. Cerebrovascular Complications of Diabetes: Focus on Stroke. Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders-Drug Targets 2012; 12(2):148-158.
Chlumský J, Charvát J. Echocardiography and carotid sonography in diabetic patients after cerebrovascular attacks. J. Int. Med. Res 2006; 34(6):689-694.
Rundek T, Arif H, Boden-Albala B, Elkind MS, Paik MC, Sacco RL. Carotid plaque, a subclinical precursor of vascular events: the Northern Manhattan Study. Neurology 2008; 70(14):1200-1207.
Biessels GJ, Deary IJ, Ryan CM. Cognition and diabetes: a lifespan perspective. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7(2):184-190.
Banerjee C, Moon YP, Paik MC, Rundek T, Mora-McLaughlin C, Vieira JR, et al. Duration of Diabetes and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: The Northern Manhattan Study. Stroke 2012; 43(5):1212-1217.
Haratz S, Tanne D. Diabetes, hyperglycemia and the management of cerebrovascular disease. Current Opinion in Neurology 2011; 24(1):81-88.
Khoury JC, Kleindorfer D, Alwell K, Moomaw CJ, Woo D, Adeoye O et al. Diabetes: a Risk Factor for Ischemic Stroke in a Large Bi-Racial Population. Stroke 2013; 44(6):1500-1504.
Jeerakathil T, Johnson JA, Simpson SH, Majumdar SR. Short-term risk for stroke is doubled in persons with newly treated type 2 diabetes compared with persons without diabetes: a population-based cohort study. Stroke 2007; 38(6):1739-1743.
Almdal T, Scharling H, Jensen JS, Vestergaard H. The independent effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on ischemic heart disease, stroke, and death: a population-based study of 13,000 men and women with 20 years of follow-up. Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164(13):1422-1426.
Çetin S, Öztürk MA, Barındık N, İmren E, Peker Y. Increased coronary intervention rate among diabetic patients with poor glycaemic control: a cross-sectional study. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2014; 14(1):16-20.
Gentile NT, Seftchick MW, Huynh T, Kruus LK, Gaughan J. Decreased Mortality by Normalizing Blood Glucose After Acute Ischemic Stroke. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13(2):174-80.
Cetin M, Kiziltunc E, Cetin ZG, Cicekcioglu H, Sahin M, Isik S et al. Acetylsalicylic acid resistance in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, prediabetes & non-diabetic coronary artery disease. Pak J Med Sci. 2014; 30(3):539-544.
Bosevski M, Georgievska-Ismail L. Ultrasound measurement of peripheral endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients: correlation with risk factors. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010;10(2):84-88.
Petznick AM, Shubrook JH. Treatment of specific macrovascular beds in patients with diabetes mellitus. Osteopathic Medicine and Primary Care 2010; 4:5.
Air EL, Kissela BM. Diabetes, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Ischemic Stroke: Epidemiology and Possible Mechanisms. Diabetes Care 2007; 30(12):3131-3140.
Darsalia V, Mansouri S, Ortsäter H, Olverling A, Nozadze N, Kappe C et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation reduces ischemic brain damage following stroke in Type 2 diabetic rats. Clinical Science 2012; 122(10):473-483.
Furie KL, Kasner SE, Adams RJ, Albers GW, Bush RL, Fagan SC et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: A guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2011; 42:227-276.
Diener HC, Bogousslavsky J, Brass LM, Cimminiello C, Csiba L, Kaste M et al. Aspirin and clopidogrel compared with clopidogrel alone after recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack in high-risk patients (MATCH): randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 364(9431):331-337.
Ntaios G, Egli M, Faouzi M, Michel P. J-shaped association between serum glucose and functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2010; 41(10):2366-2370.
Uyttenboogaart M, Koch MW, Stewart RE, Vroomen PC, Luijckx GJ, De Keyser J. Moderate hyperglycaemia is associated with favorable outcome in acute lacunar stroke. Brain 2007; 130(Pt 6):1626-30.
Prasad K. Cerebrovascular disease in South Asia – Part II: Risk factors and prevention. J R Soc Med Cardiovasc Dis 2012;1:21
Chen H, Qian K, Du Z, Cao J, Petersen A, Liu H et al. Modeling ALS with iPSCs Reveals that Mutant SOD1 Misregulates Neurofilament Balance in Motor Neurons. Cell Stem Cell. 2014;14(6):796-809.
Lu J, Liu H, Huang CT, Chen H, Du Z, Liu Y et al. Generation of Integration-free and Region-Specific Neural Progenitors from Primate Fibroblasts. Cell Rep. 2013; 3:1580-1591.
Lu, J. Progress in Clinical-Grade Induced Human Neural Stem Cells: An Editorial. JSM Genet Genomics 2013; 1:2.
Lu, J. Fueling Neuroscience with Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. International Journal of Clinical Therapeutics and Diagnosis. 2014; 2:401.
Lu, J. Reprogrammed Cells: How Far Away from the Clinical Use? Clon Transgen. 2014; 3: e112.
Lu, J. Modeling Parkinson's Disease with Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Clon Transgen 2014; 3: e113.
Lu J, Bradley RA, Zhang SC. Turning Reactive Glia into Functional Neurons in the Brain. Cell Stem Cell 2014; 14(2):133-134.
Lu J, Tan L, Li P, Gao H, Fang B, Ye S et al. All-trans retinoic acid promotes neural lineage entry by pluripotent embryonic stem cells via multiple pathways. BMC Cell Biol. 2009; 10:57.
Weick JP, Held DL, Bonadurer GF 3rd, Doers ME, Liu Y, Maguire C et al. Deficits in human trisomy 21 iPSCs and neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013;110(24):9962-7.
Williams EC, Zhong X, Mohamed A, Li R, Liu Y, Dong Q et al. Mutant astrocytes differentiated from Rett syndrome patients-specific iPSCs have adverse effects on wild-type neurons. Hum Mol Genet 2014; 23(11):2968-80.
Takahashi K, Tanabe K, Ohnuki M, Narita M, Ichisaka T, Tomoda K et al. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. Cell 2007; 131: 861–872.
Yu J, Hu K, Smuga-Otto K, Tian S, Stewart R, Slukvin II et al. Human induced pluripotent stem cells free of vector and transgene sequences. Science 2009; 324(5928):797-801.