K-RAS and N-RAS mutations in testicular germ cell tumors

  • Bekir Muhammet Hacioglu Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
  • Hilmi Kodaz Department of Medical Oncology, Acıbadem Hospital, Eskişehir, Turkey
  • Bulent Erdogan Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
  • Ahmet Cinkaya Department of Radiation Oncology, Dumlupınar University Evliya Celebi Training and Research Hospital, Kutahya, Turkey
  • Ebru Tastekin Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
  • Ilhan Hacibekiroglu Department of Medical Oncology, Sakarya University, Training and Research Hospital, Adapazarı, Turkey
  • Esma Turkmen Department of Medical Oncology, Kocaeli Derince Training and Research Hospital, Kocaeli, Turkey
  • Osman Kostek Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
  • Ezgi Genc Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
  • Sernaz Uzunoglu Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
  • Irfan Cicin Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
Keywords: Testicular germ cell tumors, seminoma, non-seminoma, K-RAS mutation, N-RAS mutation, TGCT

Abstract

Testicular cancer is a relatively rare tumor type, accounting for approximately 1% of all cancers in men. However, among men aged between 15 and 40 years, testicular cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy. Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are classified as seminoma and non-seminoma. The RAS oncogene controls several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and differentiation. Thus, RAS signaling is important for normal germ cell development. Mutations of the Kirsten RAS (K-RAS) gene are present in over 20% of all cancers. RAS gene mutations have also been reported in TGCTs. We investigated K-RAS and N-RAS mutations in seminoma and non-seminoma TGCT patients. A total of 24 (55%) pure seminoma cases and 19 (45%) non-seminoma cases were included in the study. K-RAS and N-RAS analyses were performed in our molecular pathology laboratory, using K-RAS and N-RAS Pyro Kit 24 V1 (Qiagen). In total, a RAS mutation was present in 12 patients (27%): 7 seminoma (29%) and 5 non-seminoma cases (26%) [p = 0.55]. A K-RAS mutation was present in 4 pure seminoma tumors (16%) and 3 non-seminoma tumors (15%) [p = 0.63], and an N-RAS mutation was observed in 4 seminoma tumors (16%) and 3 non-seminoma tumors (15%) [p = 0.63]. Both, K-RAS and N-RAS mutations were present in two patients: one with seminoma tumor and the other with non-seminoma tumor. To date, no approved targeted therapy is available for the treatment of TGCTs. The analysis of K-RAS and N-RAS mutations in these tumors may provide more treatment options, especially in platinum-resistant tumors.

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Author Biographies

Bekir Muhammet Hacioglu, Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
Department of Medical Oncology
Hilmi Kodaz, Department of Medical Oncology, Acıbadem Hospital, Eskişehir, Turkey
Department of Medical Oncology
Bulent Erdogan, Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
Department of Medical Oncology
Ahmet Cinkaya, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dumlupınar University Evliya Celebi Training and Research Hospital, Kutahya, Turkey
Department of Radiation Oncology
Ebru Tastekin, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
Department of Pathology
Ilhan Hacibekiroglu, Department of Medical Oncology, Sakarya University, Training and Research Hospital, Adapazarı, Turkey
Department of Medical Oncology
Esma Turkmen, Department of Medical Oncology, Kocaeli Derince Training and Research Hospital, Kocaeli, Turkey
Department of Medical Oncology
Osman Kostek, Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
Department of Medical Oncology
Ezgi Genc, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
Department of Pathology
Sernaz Uzunoglu, Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
Department of Medical Oncology
Irfan Cicin, Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
Department of Medical Oncology

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Published
2017-05-20
How to Cite
1.
Hacioglu BM, Kodaz H, Erdogan B, Cinkaya A, Tastekin E, Hacibekiroglu I, Turkmen E, Kostek O, Genc E, Uzunoglu S, Cicin I. K-RAS and N-RAS mutations in testicular germ cell tumors. Bosn J of Basic Med Sci [Internet]. 2017May20 [cited 2019Jun.25];17(2):159-63. Available from: http://www.bjbms.org/ojs/index.php/bjbms/article/view/1764
Section
Translational and Clinical Research

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