Radiopacity of alloplastic bone grafts measured with cone beam computed tomography: An analysis in rabbit calvaria
Availability of adequate bone structure for dental implants is still a problem in dentistry. Alloplastic grafts, which promote bone regeneration, are used as bone substitutes in orthopedic and oral surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of three different synthetic bone grafts in rabbit calvaria, over 3 months, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Four critical-size defects were made on the calvaria of 11 rabbits. The lesions were classified into three groups according to the alloplastic grafts they received: Osteon® 70/30, Osteon collagen®, and Osteon II® groups. The fourth group received blood clot, and served as a control. The bone samples were collected and analyzed with CBCT after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd month. One month after surgery, the lesions that received Osteon® 70/30 and Osteon collagen® grafts showed the highest radiopacity compared to the lesions with Osteon II® and blood clot. After the 2nd month, the radiopacity values between the three groups that received the grafts were more similar compared to the group with blood clot. After the 3rd month, the lesions with Osteon® 70/30 graft showed the highest radiopacity values, followed by Osteon collagen® and Osteon II® groups. The group that received blood clot showed the lowest radiopacity values. In conclusion, the grafts used in this study had higher radiopacity values compared to blood clot. Among the grafts used, the Osteon® 70/30 graft showed the highest radiopacity values in the 3-month period.
Ogose A, Hotta T, Kawashima H, Kondo N, Gu W, Kamura T, et al. Comparison of hydroxyapatite and beta tricalcium phosphate as bone substitutes after excision of bone tumors. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2005;72(1):94-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.30136.
Shiwaku Y, Neff L, Nagano K, Takeyama K, de Bruijn J, Dard M, et al. The crosstalk between osteoclasts and osteoblasts is dependent upon the composition and structure of biphasic calcium phosphates. PLoS One 2015;10(7):e0132903. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132903.
Denry I, Kuhn LT. Design and characterization of calcium phosphate ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Dent Mater 2016;32(1):43-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2015.09.008.
Larsson S. Calcium phosphates: What is the evidence? J Orthop Trauma 2010;24 Suppl 1:S41-5. DOI: 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3181cec472.
Yamada S, Heymann D, Bouler JM, Daculsi G. Osteoclastic resorption of calcium phosphate ceramics with different hydroxyapatite/beta-tricalcium phosphate ratios. Biomaterials 1997;18(15):1037-41.
Fellah BH, Gauthier O, Weiss P, Chappard D, Layrolle P. Osteogenicity of biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics and bone autograft in a goat model. Biomaterials 2008;29(9):1177-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.11.034.
Borie E, Fuentes R, Del Sol M, Oporto G, Engelke W. The influence of FDBA and autogenous bone particles on regeneration of calvaria defects in the rabbit: A pilot study. Ann Anat 2011;193(5):412-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2011.06.003.
Oporto VG, Fuentes R, Borie E, Del Sol M, Orsi IA, Engelke W. Radiographical and clinical evaluation of critical size defects in rabbit calvaria filled with allograft and autograft: A pilot study. Int J Clin Exp Med 2014;7(7):1669-75.
Ahmad R, Abu-Hassan MI, Li Q, Swain MV. Three dimensional quantification of mandibular bone remodeling using standard tessellation language registration based superimposition. Clin Oral Implants Res 2013;24(11):1273-9.
Fernandes TM, Adamczyk J, Poleti ML, Henriques JF, Friedland B, Garib DG. Comparison between 3D volumetric rendering and multiplanar slices on the reliability of linear measurements on CBCT images: An in vitro study. J Appl Oral Sci 2015;23(1):56-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-775720130445.
Marquezan M, Osório A, Sant'Anna E, Souza MM, Maia L. Does bone mineral density influence the primary stability of dental implants? A systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res 2012;23(7):767-74.
Dadsetan M, Guda T, Runge MB, Mijares D, LeGeros RZ, LeGeros JP, et al. Effect of calcium phosphate coating and rhBMP-2 on bone regeneration in rabbit calvaria using poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds. Acta Biomater 2015;18:9-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2014.12.024.
Walsh WR, Vizesi F, Michael D, Auld J, Langdown A, Oliver R, et al. Beta-TCP bone graft substitutes in a bilateral rabbit tibial defect model. Biomaterials 2008;29(3):266-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.09.035.
Fujita R, Yokoyama A, Nodasaka Y, Kohgo T, Kawasaki T. Ultrastructure of ceramic-bone interface using hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate ceramics and replacement mechanism of beta-tricalcium phosphate in bone. Tissue Cell 2003;35(6):427-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-8166(03)00067-3.
LeGeros RZ. Calcium phosphate-based osteoinductive materials. Chem Rev 2008;108(11):4742-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr800427g.
Lee JH, Ryu MY, Baek HR, Lee KM, Seo JH, Lee HK. Fabrication and evaluation of porous beta-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (60/40) composite as a bone graft extender using rat calvarial bone defect model. Scientific World J 2013;2013:481789. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/481789.
Farzadi A, Solati-Hashjin M, Bakhshi F, Aminian A. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate nanocomposites using microwave irradiation. Ceram Int 2011;37(1):65-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2010.08.021.
Bansal S, Chauhan V, Sharma S, Maheshwari R, Juyal A, Raghuvanshi S. Evaluation of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate mixed with bone marrow aspirate as a bone graft substitute for posterolateral spinal fusion. Indian J Orthop 2009;43(3):234-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5413.49387.
Hench LL. Bioactive ceramics: Theory and clinical applications. In: Anderson ÖH, Happonen RP, Yli-Urpo A, editors. Bioceramics. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1994. p. 3-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-042144-5.50005-4.
Schmitz JP, Hollinger JO. The critical size defect as an experimental model for craniomandibulofacial nonunions. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1986;205:299-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00003086-198604000-00036.
Kitayama S, Wong LO, Ma L, Hao J, Kasugai S, Lang NP, et al. Regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects using biphasic calcium phosphate and a strontium hydroxyapatite-containing collagen membrane. Clin Oral Implants Res 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/clr.12605.
Creanga AG, Geha H, Sankar V, Teixeira FB, McMahan CA, Noujeim M. Accuracy of digital periapical radiography and cone-beam computed tomography in detecting external root resorption. Imaging Sci Dent 2015;45(3):153-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.5624/isd.2015.45.3.153.
Saidi A, Naaman A, Zogheib C. Accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography and periapical radiography in endodontically treated teeth evaluation: A five-year retrospective study. J Int Oral Health 2015;7(3):15-9.
Ehrhart N, Kraft S, Conover D, Rosier RN, Schwarz EM. Quantification of massive allograft healing with dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI and cone beam-CT: A pilot study. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2008;466(8):1897-904. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999-008-0293-5.
Azeredo F, de Menezes LM, Enciso R, Weissheimer A, de Oliveira RB. Computed gray levels in multislice and cone-beam computed tomography. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2013;144(1):147-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2013.03.013.