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New monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor analogs protect against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

Xiaoping Wang, Chao Wang, Yan Yang, Jingman Ni


Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF) is an oligopeptide with anti-inflammatory properties. The carboxyl-terminal end group Cys-Asn-Ser serves as the pharmacophore of MLIF. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of two new synthetic analogs, Arg-Cys-Asn-Ser and D-Cys-Asn-Ser, on focal cerebral ischemia, which were designed and synthesized to increase the penetrability and enzymatic stability of Cys-Asn-Ser. Ninety-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: I - Sham; II - Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R); III - Nimodipine; IV - Cys-Asn-Ser; V - D-Cys-Asn-Ser; and VI - Arg-Cys-Asn-Ser. The rats in groups II-VI were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. After 24 hours of reperfusion, the neurological deficit, cerebral infarct volume, and levels of the pro-inflammatory factors interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in brain tissue homogenates were assessed. Compared with the sham group, the mean neurological deficit scores were significantly higher in groups II-VI (p ≤ 0.019 for all). The mean infarct volumes were significantly higher in I/R and Cys-Asn-Ser groups compared with the sham group (both p ≤ 0.046). The mean IL-1β level was significantly lower in D-Cys-Asn-Ser and Arg-Cys-Asn-Ser groups compared with I/R group (both p ≤ 0.046). In conclusion, the results showed that Arg-Cys-Asn-Ser and D-Cys-Asn-Ser have the potential for protective effects against focal cerebral ischemia injury.


Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor; inflammatory response; neuroprotection; cerebral ischemia/reperfusion; middle cerebral artery occlusion; rat model; interleukin-1β; tumor necrosis factor-alpha

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