Predictors and incidence of hospitalization due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in non-prophylaxed moderate-to-late preterm infants in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Prematurity is a risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), due to immature humoral and cell-mediated immune system in preterm newborns, as well as their incomplete lung development. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the F glycoprotein of RSV, is licensed for the prevention of severe RSV LRTI in children at high risk for the disease. This study is a part of a larger observational, retrospective-prospective epidemiological study (PONI) conducted at 72 sites across 23 countries in the northern temperate zone. The aim of our non-interventional study was to identify common predictors and factors associated with RSV LRTI hospitalization in non-prophylaxed, moderate-to-late preterm infants, born between 33 weeks and 0 days and 35 weeks and 6 days of gestation, and less than 6 months prior to or during the RSV season in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). A total of 160 moderate-to-late preterm infants were included from four sites in BH (Sarajevo, Tuzla, Mostar, and Banja Luka). We identified several significant intrinsic and extrinsic factors to be associated with the risk of RSV LRTI hospitalization in the preterm infants, including: comorbidities after birth, shorter hospital stay, admission to NICU/PICU while in the maternity ward, household smoking, low maternal age, breastfeeding, number of family members, and history of family/paternal atopy. Overall, our results indicated that the risk of RSV LRTI in preterm newborns can be associated with different environmental and social/cultural factors, and further research is needed to comprehensively evaluate these associations.
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