Kidney is in Trouble with Mediators
The kidneys receive 20-25 % of cardiac output and play a main role in the control of cardiovascular homeostasis. It is an endocrine organ that regulates and produces many substances, scavenger particles and immune complexes. Cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen metabolites, bioactive lipids, proteases, vasoactive substances such as nitric oxide (NO), adrenomedullin (AM), urotensin-II (U-II), have been released in several diseases, and kidney is one of mostly affected organs in body. Some of these mediators act in a paracrine fashion while some act in autocrine. They play important roles in modulating the cardiovascular responses, renal hemodynamics, and probably in mediating the clinical and laboratory manifestations of several renal diseases.
These mediators are like “a double edged sword.” While small amounts of them mediate many physiological events, little excess may cause the damage to the healthy cells. Many investigators have searched the role(s) of mediators in several diseases. However, the findings are mostly like the model of “chicken and egg”, and indistinguishable as to whether they are the causes of, or results of the diseases.
We will discuss mainly the possible roles of NO, AM and U-II in children with several renal diseases and summarize what is known, and what must be known about these mediators.