Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, isolated on three different geography locations


  • Maja Ostojić Institute for microbiology and molecular diagnostic, University Clinical Hospital, Mostar
  • Mirsada Hukić Academy of Science and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, International Burch University, Sarajevo



Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, spa-typing, agr-typing, GenoType MRSA, infection control, MRSA


Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections worldwide. Increased frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitalized patients and possibility of vancomycin resistance requires rapid and reliable characterization of isolates and control of MRSA spread in hospitals. Typing of isolates helps to understand the route of a hospital pathogen spread. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of MRSA samples on three different geography locations. In addition, our aim was to evaluate three different methods of MRSA typing: spa-typing, agr-typing and GenoType MRSA.  We included 104 samples of MRSA, isolated in 3 different geographical locations in clinical hospitals in Zagreb, Mostar, and Heidelberg, during the period of six months. Genotyping and phenotyping were done by spa-typing, agr-typing and dipstick assay GenoType MRSA. We failed to type all our samples by spa-typing.  The most common spa-type in clinical hospital Zagreb was t041, in Mostar t001, and in Heidelberg t003.We analyzed 102/104 of our samples by agr-typing method. We did not find any agr-type IV in our locations. We analyzed all our samples by the dipstick assay GenoType MRSA. All isolates in our study were MRSA strains. In Zagreb there were no positive strains to PVL gene. In Mostar we have found 5/25 positive strains to PVL gene, in Heidelberg there was 1/49. PVL positive isolates were associated with spa-type t008 and agr-type I, thus, genetically, they were community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Dipstick assay GenoType MRSA has demonstrated sufficient specificity, sensibility, simple performance and low cost, so we could introduce it to work in smaller laboratories. Using this method may expedite MRSA screening, thus preventing its spread in hospitals.


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Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, isolated on three different geography locations. Biomol Biomed [Internet]. 2015 Aug. 4 [cited 2024 Mar. 1];15(3):48-56. Available from: