Inflammation-related cytokines and their roles in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

  • Davorka Herman Mahečić Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University Hospital Centre Sestre milosrdnice, Zagreb, Croatia
  • Maja Cigrovski Berković Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University Hospital Centre Sestre milosrdnice, Zagreb, Croatia; Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0750-9785
  • Vanja Zjačić-Rotkvić Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University Hospital Centre Sestre milosrdnice, Zagreb, Croatia
  • Tamara Čačev Department of Molecular Medicine Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8160-2980
  • Sanja Kapitanović Department of Molecular Medicine Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8788-3085
  • Monika Ulamec Department of Pathology and Cytology Ljudevit Jurak, University Hospital Centre Sestre milosrdnice, Zagreb, Croatia; Pathology Department, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4843-8154
Keywords: Inflammatory microenvironment, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-2, GEP-NEN

Abstract

Proinflammatory counterworks are important at different stages of tumor development, particularly during invasion and metastasis. Immune cells and their signal molecules can influence all stages of tumor progression, as well as therapeutic intervention. Proinflammatory cytokines are known triggers of growth in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs). In this study, we explored the immunohistochemical expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-2, and IL-6 in tissues from 43 GEP-NEN patients with tumors of gastric, duodenal, ileal, appendical, and colonic origin. The immunohistochemical expression of TNF-α was increased in tumor groups with high proliferation rates (Ki67; p = 0.034), as well as in those with higher tumor grades (p = 0.05). Moreover, the immunohistochemical expression of TNF-α positively correlated with death outcomes (p = 0.016). Expression of IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-2 displayed similar immunohistochemical expression patterns regardless of Ki67, although the expression between the ILs differed. Most GEP-NENs had high levels of IL-6 and lower levels of IL-1β and IL-2. Although further comprehensive studies are required for a complete understanding of activated mechanisms in proinflammatory protumoral microenvironment of GEP-NENs, TNF-α is a potential marker in the prognosis of those tumors.

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Inflammation-related cytokines and their roles in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Published
2020-03-10
How to Cite
1.
Herman Mahečić D, Cigrovski Berković M, Zjačić-Rotkvić V, Čačev T, Kapitanović S, Ulamec M. Inflammation-related cytokines and their roles in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. Bosn J of Basic Med Sci [Internet]. 2020Mar.10 [cited 2020Apr.1];. Available from: https://www.bjbms.org/ojs/index.php/bjbms/article/view/4471
Section
Pathology