Insight into the emerging role of SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural and accessory proteins in modulation of multiple mechanisms of host innate defense

  • Abualgasim Elgaili Abdalla Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia; Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8680-8427
  • Jianping Xie Institute of Modern Biopharmaceuticals, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Eco-Environment and Bio-Resource of the Three Gorges Area, Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, China
  • Kashaf Junaid Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5328-4105
  • Sonia Younas Department of Pathology, Tehsil Headquarter Hospital Kamoke, District Gujranwala, Kamoke, Pakistan https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4958-8629
  • Tilal Elsaman Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3875-7968
  • Khalid Omer Abdalla Abosalif Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia; Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3207-7216
  • Ayman Ali Mohammed Alameen Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia; Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8467-9692
  • Mahjoob Osman Mahjoob Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan
  • Mohammed Yagoub Mohammed Elamir Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia; Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9883-0018
  • Hasan Ejaz Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6185-2042
Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, nonstructural proteins, accessory proteins, proinflammatory, interferon, immune evasion, immunomodulators

Abstract

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is an extremely infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has become a major global health concern. The induction of a coordinated immune response is crucial to the elimination of any pathogenic infection. However, SARS-CoV-2 can modulate the host immune system to favor viral adaptation and persistence within the host. The virus can counteract type I interferon (IFN-I) production, attenuating IFN-I signaling pathway activation and disrupting antigen presentation. Simultaneously, SARS-CoV-2 infection can enhance apoptosis and the production of inflammatory mediators, which ultimately results in increased disease severity. SARS-CoV-2 produces an array of effector molecules, including nonstructural proteins (NSPs) and open-reading frames (ORFs) accessory proteins. We describe the complex molecular interplay of SARS-CoV-2 NSPs and accessory proteins with the host’s signaling mediating immune evasion in the current review. In addition, the crucial role played by immunomodulation therapy to address immune evasion is discussed. Thus, the current review can provide new directions for the development of vaccines and specific therapies.

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Author Biographies

Abualgasim Elgaili Abdalla , Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia; Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan

Assistant Professor

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences

Jianping Xie, Institute of Modern Biopharmaceuticals, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Eco-Environment and Bio-Resource of the Three Gorges Area, Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, China

Associate Professor

Institute of Modern Biopharmaceuticals

School of Life Sciences

Kashaf Junaid, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia

Assistant Professor

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences

College of Applied Medical Sciences

Sonia Younas, Department of Pathology, Tehsil Headquarter Hospital Kamoke, District Gujranwala, Kamoke, Pakistan

Microbiologist

Department of Pathology

 

Tilal Elsaman, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan

Assistant Professor

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

College of Pharmacy

Khalid Omer Abdalla Abosalif, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia; Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan

Assistant Professor

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences

College of Applied Medical Sciences

Ayman Ali Mohammed Alameen, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia; Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Assistant Professor

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences

College of Applied Medical Sciences

Mahjoob Osman Mahjoob, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan

Assistant Professor

Department of Medical Microbiology

Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences

Mohammed Yagoub Mohammed Elamir, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia; Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan

Lecturer

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences

College of Applied Medical Sciences

Hasan Ejaz, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia

Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences

College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University

Al Jouf 72388, Saudi Arabia

Insight into the emerging role of SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural and accessory proteins in modulation of multiple mechanisms of host innate defense
Published
2021-03-07
How to Cite
1.
Abdalla AE, Xie J, Junaid K, Younas S, Elsaman T, Abosalif KOA, Alameen AAM, Mahjoob MO, Elamir MYM, Ejaz H. Insight into the emerging role of SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural and accessory proteins in modulation of multiple mechanisms of host innate defense. Bosn J of Basic Med Sci [Internet]. 2021Mar.7 [cited 2021Apr.19];. Available from: https://www.bjbms.org/ojs/index.php/bjbms/article/view/5543
Section
Reviews