SARS‐CoV‐2 infection and multi-organ system damage: a review

Authors

  • Ali A. Rabaan Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory, Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, Saudi Arabia
  • Samira Smajlović Laboratory Diagnostics Institute Dr. Dedić, Bosnia and Herzegovina https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5756-2368
  • Huseyin Tombuloglu Department of Genetics Research, Institute for Research and Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia
  • Sabahudin Ćordić Cantonal hospital "Dr. Irfan Ljubijankić", Microbiological laboratory, Bosnia and Herzegovina https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4398-1078
  • Azra Hajdarević Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, International Burch University, Ilidža, Bosnia and Herzegovina https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3666-6918
  • Nudžejma Kudić Faculty of Agriculture and Food Science, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0982-1054
  • Abbas Al Mutai Research Center, Almoosa Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia
  • Safaa A. Turkistani Fakeeh College for Medical Science, Saudi Arabia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8607-5251
  • Shamsah H. Al-Ahmed Specialty Pediatric Medicine, Qatif Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia
  • Nisreen A. Al-Zaki Specialty Pediatric Medicine, Qatif Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia
  • Mona J. Al Marshood Specialty Pediatric Medicine, Qatif Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia
  • Amal H. Alfaraj Pediatric Department, Abqaiq General Hospital, First Eastern Health Cluster, Saudi Arabia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8506-6310
  • Saad Alhumaid Administration of Pharmaceutical Care, Al-Ahsa Health Cluster, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia
  • Ebtesam Al-Suhaimi Biology Department, College of Science and Institute for Research and Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2022.7762

Keywords:

SARS-CoV-2, ACE2, COVID-19, cytokine storm, multi-organ failure

Abstract

The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes COVID-19, which has affected approximately six hundred million people globally as of August 2022. Organs and cells harboring angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) surface receptors are the primary targets of the virus. However, once it enters the body through the respiratory system, the virus can spread hematogenously to infect other body organs. Therefore, COVID-19 affects many organs, causing severe and long-term complications, even after the disease has ended, thus worsening the quality of life. Although it is known that the respiratory system is most affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection, many organs/systems are affected in the short and long term. Since the COVID-19 disease simultaneously affects many organs, redesigning diagnostic and therapy policies to fit the damaged organs is strongly recommended. Even though the pathophysiology of many problems the infection causes is unknown, the frequency of COVID-19 cases rises with age and the existence of preexisting symptoms. This study aims to update our knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 infection and multi-organ dysfunction interaction based on clinical and theoretical evidence. For this purpose, the study comprehensively elucidates the most recent studies on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on multiple organs and systems, including respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, renal, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, immune, and parts of the integumentary system. Understanding the range of atypical COVID-19 symptoms could improve disease surveillance, limit transmission, and avoid additional multi-organ-system problems.

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SARS‐CoV‐2 infection and multi-organ system damage: a review

Published

2022-09-16

How to Cite

1.
Rabaan AA, Smajlović S, Tombuloglu H, Ćordić S, Hajdarević A, Kudić N, Al Mutai A, Turkistani SA, Al-Ahmed SH, Al-Zaki NA, Al Marshood MJ, Alfaraj AH, Alhumaid S, Al-Suhaimi E. SARS‐CoV‐2 infection and multi-organ system damage: a review. Bosn J of Basic Med Sci [Internet]. 2022Sep.16 [cited 2022Sep.29];. Available from: https://www.bjbms.org/ojs/index.php/bjbms/article/view/7762

Issue

Section

Reviews