COVID-19 and Alzheimer’s disease: Impact of lockdown and other restrictive measures during the COVID-19 pandemic
Keywords:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Alzheimer’s disease, lockdown, restrictions, isolation measures, dementia, neurological symptoms, caregivers
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection initially results in respiratory distress symptoms but can also lead to central nervous system (CNS) and neurological manifestations, significantly impacting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, strict lockdown measures introduced to curtail the spread of COVID-19 have raised concerns over the wellbeing of patients with dementia and/or Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of this review was to discuss the overlapping molecular pathologies and the potential bidirectional relationship between COVID-19 and Alzheimer’s dementia, as well as the impact of lockdown/restriction measures on the neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of patients with Alzheimer’s dementia. Furthermore, we aimed to assess the impact of lockdown measures on the NPS of caregivers, exploring its potential effects on the quality and extent of care they provide to dementia patients.We utilized the PubMed and Google Scholar databases to search for articles on COVID-19, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, lockdown, and caregivers. Our review highlights that patients with Alzheimer’s disease face an increased risk of COVID-19 infection and complications. Additionally, these patients are likely to experience greater cognitive decline. It appears that these issues are primarily caused by the SARS-CoV-2 infection and appear to be further exacerbated by restrictive/lockdown measures. Moreover, lockdown measures introduced during the pandemic have negatively impacted both the NPSs of caregivers and their perception of the wellbeing of their Alzheimer’s patients. Thus, additional safeguard measures, along with pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches, are needed to protect the wellbeing of dementia patients and their caregivers in light of this and possible future pandemics.
Copyright (c) 2023 Ahmed Daniyal Nawaz, Mohammad Zulqurnain Haider, Saghir Akhtar
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