Using Verapamil as Protective Factor in Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury During Anatrophic Nephrolithotomy
Keywords:staghorn stone, anatrophic nephrolithotomy, prevention of reperfusion injury
Anatrophic nephrolithotomy (ANL) in the selected cases represents the method of choice in the treatment of staghorn calculi. We evaluated postoperative outcome of patients subjected to standard ANL that received 10 mg of Verapamil immediately before declamping renal artery, due to prevention of reperfusion injury. From 2002 to 2005, 18 nephrolithotomies were performed on 15 patients, in the Urology Clinic, University of Sarajevo Clinics Centre. Preoperative evaluation included intravenous urography and radionuclide renal scans which had been repeated 6 months after the operations. 10 males and 5 females were operated with mean age of 45 years. Urography and renal scans showed severe calyceal distortion and infundibular stenosis in 83% cases, complicated with ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 55% cases. Chronic kidney failure was present in 60% patients. Mean operative time was 150 minutes, with mean cold ischemia time of 61 minutes and mean blood loss of 300ml. There were five minor postoperative complications. Residual small calculi were found in 3 patients. Kidney function was stabilized in the patients suffering from chronic kidney failure, which was proved by radio nuclide imaging. ANL improved by using calcium channel blockers as a protective factor for reperfusion injury proved to be a good treatment choice with a low level of complications and noticeable stabilization and improvement of kidneys function.