Comparison of the clinical features and long-term prognosis of gallbladder neuroendocrine carcinoma versus gallbladder adenocarcinoma: A propensity score-matched analysis
Keywords:Gallbladder neuroendocrine carcinoma (GBNEC), gallbladder adenocarcinoma (GBADC), propensity score matching (PSM), overall survival (OS), prognosis
Gallbladder neuroendocrine carcinoma (GBNEC) is rare and characterized by a low degree of tumor differentiation. The clinical features of GBNEC versus gallbladder adenocarcinoma (GBADC) remain a subject of debate. A total of 201 GBADC and 36 GBNEC cases that underwent surgery resection between January 2010 and 2022 at the Department of Biliary Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University were included. A 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) was performed based on seven predefined variables: age, sex, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, resection status, perineural invasion (PNI), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and degree of tumor differentiation. Compared with GBADC, GBNEC patients were younger (median age 56.0 vs 64.0 years; P = 0.001), and more patients presented with advanced stages of tumor (P = 0.003). Patients with GBNEC also had a higher rate of PNI (55.6% vs 22.4%; P < 0.001), and LVI (63.9% vs 45.80%; P = 0.658). Before PSM, GBNEC patients had inferior prognoses compared with GBADC patients with a shorter median overall survival (mOS) (15.02 vs 20.11 months; P = 0.0028) and a shorter median recurrence-free survival (mRFS) (10.30 vs 15.17 months; P = 0.0028). However, after PSM analyses, there were no differences in OS (mOS 18.6 vs 18.0 months; P=0.24) or RFS (mRFS 10.98 vs 12.02 months; P = 0.39) between the GBNEC and GBADC cases. After multivariate analysis, tumor diagnosis (GBNEC vs GBADC) was not identified as an independent risk factor for shorter RFS (P = 0.506) or OS (P = 0.731). Unfavorable pathological features, including advanced AJCC tumor stages, poor differentiation, presence of LVI, and positive resection margins (all P < 0.05), were independent risk factors for inferior OS and RFS. GBNEC is difficult to diagnose early and has a prognosis comparable to stage-matched poorly differentiated GBADC. Tumor diagnosis (either GBADC or GBNEC) was not an independent risk factor for the patient’s OS. Unfavorable pathological features of the neoplasm are the main determinants.
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Copyright (c) 2023 Ya-Fei Hu, Wen-Jie Ma, Hai-Jie Hu, Han-Fei Gu, Yan-Wen Jin, Fu-Yu Li
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