Macrosomic Births at Mostar Clinical Hospital: A 2-Year Review
Keywords:macrosomic birth, obstetric trauma, perinatal outcome
The aim of this research was to determine the incidence, risk factors and perinatal outcome of the macrosomic infants (birth weight > or = 4000 g). The retrospective research was performed using a case-control study conducted at Mostar Clinical Hospital. Total of 379 women gave singleton term births to macrosomic newborn in the period from January1st, 2004 to December 31st, 2005 (observed group). Another 379 singleton normal birth- weight term newborns (birth weight < 4000 g, but not small for gestational age), of the same maternal parity and age, who were delivered in the same period, formed the control group. The incidence of macrosomic births was 13, 1%. In the study group, significantly higher number of cases of postdatism (> 42 weeks of gestation) (P<0,001), maternal obesity (prepregnancy BMI> 26 kg/m2) (P<0,001), ges-tational diabetes mellitus (P=0,033), hypertension (P=0,025) and male infant (P<0,001) were observed. Cesarean delivery (P<0,001), intrapartal complications (cephalopelvic disproportion P<0.001, perineal trauma P=0,042) and newborn birth trauma (clavicular fracture P=0,038, brachial palsy P=0,021) occurred significantly more often in the mac-rosomic group. There was only one fetal death in the macrosomic group. In the control group there were no cases of perinatal deaths.
To conclude, it is important to emphasize the significance of proper diagnosis of fetal macrosomia and management of macrosomic birth, since we have seen a growing number of macrosomic births during the last decades, and have faced a problem of increased risks of adverse perinatal outcome.